ColumnsTime To Court Martial The Summary Court Martial Aanchal Dahiya & Hari Mudgil22 April 2020 10:41 PMShare This – xIndian army is the third largest force in the world. India has a total of 1.4 million active army excluding 11.55 reserve forces. Apart from the armed forces on ground, we have a strong Air Force and Naval Force consisting of around 140,000 and 60,000 active members respectively. It is a well-known saying among the military corridors that in terms of battle on the ground; Indian soldiers…Your free access to Live Law has expiredTo read the article, get a premium account.Your Subscription Supports Independent JournalismSubscription starts from ₹ 599+GST (For 6 Months)View PlansPremium account gives you:Unlimited access to Live Law Archives, Weekly/Monthly Digest, Exclusive Notifications, Comments.Reading experience of Ad Free Version, Petition Copies, Judgement/Order Copies.Subscribe NowAlready a subscriber?LoginIndian army is the third largest force in the world. India has a total of 1.4 million active army excluding 11.55 reserve forces. Apart from the armed forces on ground, we have a strong Air Force and Naval Force consisting of around 140,000 and 60,000 active members respectively. It is a well-known saying among the military corridors that in terms of battle on the ground; Indian soldiers are counted among the best soldiers in the world. It would not be hyperbole to say that “If an army has English officer, American weapons and Indian soldiers then nobody can defeat this army.” In India, The Army is regulated by Army Act 1950, Air Force and Navy are constituted under their respective Acts of 1950 and 1957. The Army Act 1950 is more or less on similar lines as that of Indian Army under British control under which larger parts of commissioned officers were British and the cadre of lower ranks of soldiers including junior commissioned officers was from rural or semi urban part of India. After getting Independence in 1947, a major overhaul of laws prevalent in the British era was done and many such Acts or provisions of Acts were abolished which were either against the very spirit of free India or were derogatory towards the people of India. But the Army Act 1950 remained same by and large except a few superficial and cosmetic changes. JURISPRUDENCE OF MILITARY JUSTICE The Army Act 1950, establishes a court to try offences committed by the officers or members subject to this Act. These courts are known as Court-Martial. The Army Act describes the composition of these Court Martials and the procedure within the organization in detail. Four kinds of Court Martial are given under section 108 of the Act. Section 108 states that, “For the purpose of this Act there shall be four kind of Court Martial, that is to say,- (a) General Court Martial (b) District Court Martial (c) Summary General Court Martial (d) Summary Court Martial. These are four kinds of Court-Martials and they operate at different levels. Almost all the offences committed by any army personnel would be tried by a Court-Martial. The offences that can be tried by the Court-Martial have been given in the Chapter VI of the Army Act, 1950. However, an exception wherein Court-Martial does not have its jurisdiction, is when any army personnel commits an offence of murder, or culpable-homicide not amounting to murder, or rape against a person not subject to Army Act. But, there is an exception to the above exception according to which the Court-Martial will have jurisdiction over the matter if the offence was committed: 1) While on active service 2) At any place outside India 3) At a frontier post specified by the Central Government in notification. Reliability of Court Martial The criminal justice system of military is fully dependent on court martials. These courts are constituted under the provisions of Army Act and not otherwise. The four kinds of Courts as mentioned in section 108 of the Act are convened by the senior military officers. Almost all the members of these courts are from non- legal backgrounds except the Judge Advocate, who is the only officer who sits in all courts except the summary court Martial. When it comes to the reliability and fairness of the trial of military courts, then it becomes necessary to look at the composition of these military courts. (A) General Court-Martial Not less than five officers and each must have held a commission for not less than three years. Amongst the five, not less than four should be above the rank of Captain. This court Martial can be constituted for any rank who is subject to this Act and can give any kind of punishment as prescribed under Army Act. (B) District Court-Martial Not less than three officers and each must have held a commission for not less than two years. This court- martial shall have power to try any person subject to this Act other than an officer or a junior commissioned officer for any offence made punishable therein, and to pass any sentence authorised by this Act other than a sentence of death, transportation, or imprisonment for a term exceeding two years: Provided that a district court- martial shall not sentence a warrant officer to imprisonment. Hence, the district court Martial can try only person below junior commissioned officers with competency to award punishment up to two years of imprisonment only. (C) Summary General Court Martial This court consists of not less than three officers and like General Court Martial, this can also award any punishment as prescribed under Act. (D) Summary Court Martial This court is most controversial and its reliability is more often questioned now a days. This is constituted by the local commanding officer of the unit and he is the only prosecuting officer under this court. The maximum sentence prescribed under this court is imprisonment of one year. As the name suggests, this court follows summary proceedings and trial is completed within few days and in some cases within few hours. As per section 116 of Army Act, Summary Court Martial may be constituted by commanding officer of any corps, department or detachment of regular army and he shall alone constitute this court. Moreover, subsection (2) of this section says that the proceedings shall be attended by two other persons-throughout who shall be officers or JCO or one either. Now coming back on the reliability and fairness of court Martial, these courts have been functioning under ambit of military laws in India with due respect, a primary reason being that the general public has a great allegiance and faith on the working culture of the Army at large. The speedy trial of cases unlike the civil court is assumed to be signature tune of these military courts. The court martials work pragmatically on the principle that justice delayed is justice denied. Moreover, in order to maintain the discipline of forces, it is significant to dispose of the matter expeditiously otherwise it will adversely impact the moral of forces. However, it is pertinent to note that the court proceedings should not be decided or impacted by public sentiments. If the justice delayed is justice denied then it is equally true that justice hurried is justice buried. It is a substantial and procedural law in army that takes care of everyone from the sepoy to the Chief. As is the case with much of India’s Penal Code, even the Military Act has remained by and large unchanged from its colonial days. The proceedings, for instance, are recorded in English. The majority of the troops and junior commissioned officers are not fluent in the language, making their access to case papers difficult. During the course of the court martial, the accused is denied bail and not even allowed to meet his family, provisions that are available in the trial stage in civil courts. A trial in the services is usually referred to as a court martial and the laws for conducting this are as those laid out in the Act and rules of Army. Before a case goes to court martial, a court of inquiry may be conducted in which the evidence is examined. This is done under the command of a senior officer known as the convening authority. A court martial is a temporary body assumed by a senior military officer after looking into the charges against an accused solider, As discussed earlier, all the courts are consisting of senior army officers but interestingly, none of the officers who constitute a court martial save the officer from JAG are trained in law. They are simply men in uniform, thus having meager knowledge of the reliability of evidences and fairness of a justice system. The lack of opportunity given to the accused person to show cause also goes against the basic principle of common law, audi-alterum partem, that is no one should be condemned unheard. There are, however, certain rank protocols to be followed when convening a court martial with the lowest rank of a presiding officer being a full colonel. If the accused is an officer, then members have to be of that rank or above. The accused is allowed a “suitable counsel” and the trial is conducted with a proper examination of proof and witnesses. The quantum of punishment awarded by the court martial has to be signed upon by the convening officer who also has the power to send back the sentence if not satisfied. A trial can be spread over some months with the court martial being convened from time to time. This approach is generally followed in all court Martials save summary courts. Moreover, other than conviction under a summary court Martial, an accused has the right to go to the Armed Forces Tribunal (AFT) if he is not happy with the sentence. And in case he is not happy with the ruling of the AFT also, he can approach the Supreme Court. Moreover, his other legal options; like remedy by way of a writ petition to the High Court under Art 226 of the Constitution of India are also open. But the problems with this system are manifold. First and foremost, none of the officers are legally qualified. Secondly, since the convening officer is of the highest rank, there is the question of whether the other officers who constitute the court martial can act in an independent manner. The rank structure and hierarchy in army is strongly rooted and junior officer present in court Martial hardly dissent the opinion of his seniors or the convening officer. Though as per law, any dissenting member may attach his dissent but this is hardly seen in military court proceedings. Army officers cannot be clear of command influence and cannot be completely independent while exercising their judgment. Although in some cases before court martial, a court of inquiry is set up in which it is determined whether the evidence supports the charges. The convening officer of a court of inquiry appoints the court martial members and has the final say in the sentence which points to a clear conflict of interest. In many precedents, the European Courts have ruled that service officer’s lack of legal qualification or experience makes it impossible for them to act in an independent or impartial manner. Notorious Summary Court Martial The most questionable court in military justice system is summary court Martial. Though the maximum punishment under the competency of this court is one year, but it is infamous at least in the eyes of jurists because of its arbitrariness. In such courts, the only person to whom all discretion given is commanding officer of the unit of accused member. The accused under this court are only persons of non-officer rank (up to rank of Havildar) who lag behind educationally when compared to officers and junior commissioned officers in the same unit or regiment. Commanding officer is the sole in-charge of this court as other two members of court (usually junior officers or JCOs) can’t dare to dissent to the opinion of the commanding officer. In summary court Martial, there is no proper trial and cases may be disposed of as per the whims and fancies of commanding officer. The evidence taking process is arbitrary and no natural justice is properly followed. There is no provision of having a legal advisor or pleader to assist the accused. There is no process of cross-examination of witness by the accused. Sometimes, a court of inquiry is constituted by commanding officer which is more of a nature of fact finding inquiry. This inquiry report practically becomes the basis of conviction. This is certainly not a good law and against all the cannons of criminal justice system wherein all the powers of justice system like inquiry, evidence collection, prosecution or convening the court are vested in one person. A poor soldier with little or no knowledge of law is forced to plead guilty, which ultimately makes the case strong in favour of prosecution. The bare minimum of decency and fair play has to be given to every accused irrespective of his caste, custom, sect, organization or any other distinct identity of any form. But the summary court Martial, a colonial practice with colonial mindset which is imposed only upon the soldiers is unconstitutional and unjustified in every aspect. How proceedings of Summary Court Martial are bad in Law 1. Audi alteram partem is the rule of natural justice, without which all the administrative actions become unconstitutional. In summary court Martial, this aspect is completely ignored. 2. Nemo judex causa sua , meaning thereby, no one shall be judge in his own case. In summary court Martial the commanding officer of unit is interested party and all the proceedings are conducted at his behest. So in such circumstances, commanding officer cannot be assumed to be free from all kind of pre conceived notional biases and prejudices. 3. There is no explainer for this fact that only the lower ranks are subject to summary court martials. Why this is not applicable to officers. This is an utter discrimination and against the manadate of article 14 of Indian constitution. 4. As per Section 129 of Army Act, all the military courts as defined under section 108, except the summary court Martial, shall he attended by Judge advocate, an only legal person from the Judge Advocate General branch of Army. Due to the absence of any legal personality in such court Martial, there is always an apprehension that complete justice is not done. 5. As per section 161 read with section 153 of same Act, no punishment given by any of court Martial, except summary court martial, shall be valid unless it is confirmed by confirming authority of Army. So, here also the bare minimum fairness in the form of approach to higher authorities is curtailed for summary court martial convicts. 6. Section 164 of this Act provides remedy against the order, findings or sentence of all the court Martial. This approach is made available to every accused and for the satisfaction of confirming authority to the correctness, legality and propriety of such order or findings whatever may be the case. As discussed above, subjects of summary court are person of lower ranks with no legal assistance, their approach to such higher confirmation authority is in vain and a futile exercise for them. 7. If there is a fault in court of inquiry, then accused does not have any remedy to file any protest petition or any other remedy of like nature. Why army needs summary court martial Most of the modern armies of democratic countries do not follow such kind of criminal courts in which the minimum fairness is not available. The British Army, from where our army inherited this criminal court does not own the summary court martial in their military jurisprudence. Even in our own Airforce and Navy do not have such kind of kangaroo courts which infringe the already infringed fundamental rights of a solider. Indian army took all provisions of court martial from colonial Indian army controlled by Britishers. The provisions of summary court martial were added in military law only after 1857 after the sepoy mutiny in order to contain the Indian soldiers. The provisions relating to summary courts martial are in essence a continuation of the then prevalent system with all its inherent defects. It denies the accused a minimum degree of decency and fair play that must be guaranteed in any democratic society professing to follow the concept of rule of law. The world is moving towards granting all the fundamental rights to the members of the armed forces which has led to a demand for reviewing the existing military justice system in India- a system conceived to keep the native army under strict control. The only contention which can be raised in favour of such courts is that it accelerates the trial process which is ultimately indispensable for discipline within army. But this argument is not wholly sustainable and bereft of reasons. Discipline is a subjective matter and it should be dealt accordingly. Crafting a process of justice system more fair and free will not affect the discipline adversely rather this will boost up the morals of subordinates particularly jawans who are vulnerable to such unjust and arbitrary courts. Legal illiteracy along with low level of academic education makes the troops to fall easy prey for such courts. When no democratic country has this kind of kangaroo courts then their existence in a democratic army like that of India is beyond any logic or reason. No amount of justification is ample for advocacy of such summary trial in military law. Summary Court Martial in eyes of Indian Judiciary Summary court-martial has been used extensively even in independent India. Till recently the decisions of summary courts-martial were considered final. Hardly any soldier approached civil courts against the award of a summary court-martial. Appeals were addressed merely to Superior offices in the army in the forms of petitions and provisions under the regulations for the army and were generally rejected. One reason for the rejection of such pleas was that once an accused pleaded is declared guilty, it would become difficult for him to establish his innocence or the injustice of the award of punishment at a later stage. However the trend is changing and the awards of summary court-martial are being challenged in various High courts, and Supreme Court. In a large number of cases the higher courts have criticized the justice system followed by a summary court-martial. They have even quashed much such derision as being biased, unfair, and unjust and declared the punishment disproportionate to the offence. Some of these cases are as follows: Ranjit Thakur V Union of India-The appellant, Ranjit Thakur, joined the Armed Services on September 7, 1972, and was, at the relevant time, a Signal Man in “4, Corps operating Signal Regiment.” located at Tezpur in Assam. Apparently, appellant had not commended himself well to respondent No. 4, who was the commanding officer of the regiment. On March 29, 1985, appellant was already serving- out a sentence of 28 days rigorous imprisonment imposed on him for violating the norms for presenting representations to higher officers. Appellant had also sent representation complaining of ill-treatment at the hands of Respondent 4 directly to the higher officers. Appellant was punished for that by Respondent 4. Appellant was held in the Quarter-guard Cell in handcuffs to serve that sentence of rigorous imprisonment. In this case criticizing the decision of summary court martial, Apex court held that: (i) The proceedings of the Court-Martial are vitiated by non-compliance with the mandate of Section 130(1) of the Act in that the Summary Court Martial did not afford to the appellant an opportunity to challenge its constitution as required by that section; (ii) The proceedings of the Court-Martial were vitiated by bias on the part of Respondent 4 who participated in and dominated the proceedings. Jaswant Singh vs Union of India (2018)- Supreme Court in this case interpreted the rule 129 of Army rules 1954 and said that even in summary court martial, the accused can take assistance of legal advisor. As per the facts of the case, the appellant was a sepoy in the army who had joined service on January 1, 2003 was dismissed from the service and sentenced to six months’ imprisonment after Summary Court-Martial (SCM).Bench of Justices D.Y. Chandrachud and M.R. Shah set aside the order of December 18, 2012 of Armed Force Tribunal (AFT), Lucknow bench, and the decision taken on the basis of the Summary Court Martial and observed that, “In the face of Army Rule 129, there was no reason to deny him the benefit of legal representation which he desired at his own expense,” The court said that there was a clear violation of the principles of natural justice as the “prejudice is too evident”. “The appellant was dismissed from service and sentenced to six months’ imprisonment. Both his livelihood and liberty were taken away,” the bench said while setting aside the order of AFT and the decision taken on the basis of the SCM. He had requested the Commanding Officer to permit him to hire a civil advocate. On July 8, 2009, the request of sepoy was turned down on the ground that under Regulation 479 of the Army Regulations, a civil advocate is permissible to only those persons who are subject to trial for an offence which entails death penalty. “The Rule clearly indicates that in a Summary Court Martial, the accused may have a person to assist him during the trial, whether a legal adviser or any other person. The expression ‘may’ must be read to mean that the person who is proceeded against has the option on whether or not to engage a legal advisor or any other person. It represents an entitlement to be represented,” the bench observed. Lance Naik Mirza Narza Ahmed v. Union of India- The proceedings of the summary Court-martial were challenged on the these grounds (i) the commanding officer was biased against the petitioner, (ii) the summary of evidence was prepared by the commanding officer and, therefore, was not qualified to preside over the Court and (iii) there was no evidence against the petitioner. After examining the case the J & K High Court repelled the first two contentions but found the third contention tenable because under Section 52(b) of the Army Act, the proceedings disclosed neither any evidence of entrustment nor of disposal of property by the petitioner. Accordingly the Court set aside the proceedings. Conclusion On the face of it, the prescribed procedure under the summary court martial appears to be bad in law as it lacks principles of natural justice in its operation. India is a democratic country so is her army. The discipline, ethos and culture of Indian army is well recognized all over the world. It is true that in order to maintain this culture and discipline, there should be zero tolerance towards the offences within organization and the trial and conviction of such offenders should be fast and expeditious. But it does not mean that in the haste of expeditious disposal of cases in the name of discipline, the basic and fundamental pillar of any fair criminal justice system is done away with. The present form of summary court martial lacks in principles of natural justice to the accused. Neither the accused is heard properly nor is he permitted to be represented by any civil advocate or any legal advisor. It is high time that the Central government in consultation with the Army develops a new mechanism of the proceedings of summary trial by which neither the discipline nor the rights of accused of fair trial are compromised.Views Are Personal Only(Aanchal Dahiya is Visiting faculty, Faculty of Law, University of Delhi Co-author Hari Mudgil is Lawyer and Research Scholar.) 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James Fisher Marine Services (JFMS) has completed a deep-towed subsea survey project for Russian oil and gas company Lukoil offshore Romania in the Black Sea.Source: James FisherJMFS said that the goal of the subsea survey was to see if the waters within a part of Lukoil’s Trident block held artifacts from the Venetian golden era.The deep-towed subsea survey covered an 8 x 6.13-kilometer grid over three planned exploration wells in the Ex30 Trident Block.Being the site of a recent discovery of 60 shipwrecks that brought artifacts dating back to the Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman periods to the surface for the first time in centuries, the Black Sea is a region of significant scientific interest.JFMS, a part of James Fisher and Sons, delivered the survey in order to comply with new Romanian environmental law dictating that the Russian oil and gas company must perform an archaeological clearance survey.This looks to identify any potential archaeological targets, and where none remain, sanctions the area as being clear of any archaeological interest.JFMS procured the multi-purpose support vessel Ievoli Cobalt, mobilized with a towed side-scan sonar and sub-bottom profiler solution, together with a work-class remotely operated vehicle, and Triton XLX WROV.The post-analysis of data revealed no targets of potential archaeological interest, meaning the Romanian authorities are now free to issue an Archaeological Discharge Certificate and Lukoil may now proceed with drilling and construction operations in the field later this year.Spotted a typo? Have something more to add to the story? Maybe a nice photo? Contact our editorial team via email. Also, if you’re interested in showcasing your company, product or technology on Offshore Energy Today please contact us via our advertising form where you can also see our media kit.
An all-star crew of officials, including a referee who has officiated one other Super Bowl and 13 previous NFL playoff games, was assigned to Super Bowl 54 between the 49ers and Chiefs weeks before the matchup was set.Bill Vinovich, in his 11th season as an NFL referee and 14th overall as an NFL official, will be the referee for the Super Bowl in 2020. The 58-year-old also served as the referee for Super Bowl 49 between the Seahawks and Patriots. Run plays: Watches tight end for illegal blocking or defensive penalties.Pass plays: Watches tight end for illegal use of hands or defensive interference; rules on whether a receiver made a legal catch; determines who recovered a fumble.Special teams: Rules on fair catches; lines up under goal posts to rule on whether field goals and extra points are good. As always, the goal for NFL officials assigned to the Super Bowl in 2020 is for observers not to care who’s working the big game. If nobody’s talking about the officiating, that generally means those calling the game are doing a good job.Of course, throughout the 2019 regular season and in the playoffs in 2020, chatter around NFL officiating has been as loud as ever, leaving referees to explain questionable calls made by their crews after most games. With the addition of pass interference to the NFL’s replay review system this year, senior vice president of officiating Al Riveron’s performance also has been under the microscope.Which is why it’s notable that Vinovich was the referee who worked last season’s NFC championship game, a contest that ended with the infamous pass interference non-call that prompted the tweak to the NFL’s replay review system.MORE: How much do Super Bowl referees get paid?Super Bowl 2020 referee, officialsBelow are the officials the NFL assigned to Super Bowl 54 between the 49ers and Chiefs, including their NFL experience and the Super Bowls on their resume.PositionOfficialNFL experienceSuper BowlsRefereeBill Vinovich14 yearsSB 49UmpireBarry Anderson13 yearsNoneLine judgeCarl Johnson16 yearsSB 42Side judgeBoris Cheek24 yearsSB 42, SB 50Back judgeGreg Steed17 yearsSB 44Field judgeMichael Banks18 yearsSB 43Down judgeKent Payne16 yearsSB 45, SB 51In addition to the seven on-field officials for the Super Bowl, Mike Chase will serve as the crew’s replay official. Chase and umpire Barry Anderson are the only officials on the crew who have never worked a Super Bowl.The NFL assigns its Super Bowl officials based on a combination of experience and performance grades throughout the season. Per Football Zebras, in order to be considered for the Super Bowl, a referee “must have at least five years of seniority, worked three years at the referee position and worked a playoff game as a referee in the previous postseason.” All other officials must have at least five years of experience with a conference championship game (or on-field assignments in three of the last five postseasons) on his or her resume.As noted by The Washington Post, the crew for Super Bowl 54 in 2020 includes the most minority officials ever for a Super Bowl. Five African-Americans — Anderson, field judge Michael Banks, line judge Carl Johnson, back judge Greg Steed and side judge Boris Cheek — are on the seven-man crew for 49ers vs. Chiefs.”Super Bowl officials are selected among their peers for excelling at every one of the stringent criteria as met on every play in every game throughout the season,” NFL executive vice president of football operations Troy Vincent told The Post. “The diversity of this Super Bowl officiating team is a testimony to those who far exceed the on-field leadership and excellence commensurate with the performance demands of the most significant game of the year for coaches, players and fans.”Super Bowl assignments are set – Bill Vinovich has been named #SBLIV referee. pic.twitter.com/52iJdkUWe4— NFL Officiating (@NFLOfficiating) January 15, 2020NFL officials assignments, responsibilitiesEach of the seven NFL officials on the field in a given NFL game have specific roles, watching different areas of the field and looking out for different kinds of penalties on a given play.Below are the responsibilities of each on-field official, via NFL Operations.RefereeLining up 10-12 yards behind the line of scrimmage in the offensive backfield, the referee is the white-hat wearing leader of the crew who signals all penalties and is the final authority on all rulings. Below are the referee’s assignments on run plays, pass plays and special-teams plays.Run plays: Watches nap; follows QB until action moves downfield; then follows runner to determine forward progress and position of the ball; determines first downs or if a measurement is necessary.Pass plays: Shadows QB from drop to release; drops back as the play starts and monitors offensive tackles; turns attention solely to QB as defense approaches; watches for roughing the passer; rules on intentional grounding; makes the decision whether a loose ball is a fumble or incomplete pass.Special teams: Watches for running into/roughing the kicker.UmpireLining up next to the referee 10-12 yards behind the line of scrimmage in the offensive backfield, the umpire primarily watches for holding and blocking fouls. He or she also reviews player equipment, counts offensive players on the field and marks off penalty yardage. Below are the umpire’s assignments on run plays, pass plays and special teams-plays.Run plays: Watches for false starts on offensive line; watches for illegal blocks by the offense or any defensive fouls at the line of scrimmage.Pass plays: Watches for false stars on offensive line; on screens, turns attention to intended receiver to make sure he is able to run his route; watches for blocking penalties.Special teams: Watches for any penalties.Down judgeLining up on the sideline and looking directly down the line of scrimmage, the down judge directs the chain crew, informs the ref of the down and rules on sideline plays on the nearest half of the field. Below are the down judge’s assignments on run plays, pass plays and special-teams plays.Run plays: Watches for offside or encroachment; monitors sideline; determines when/if a runner is out of bounds; marks runner’s forward progress.Pass plays: Watches nearest receiver for first seven yards of his route until he is clear the point of legal contact for defensive backs; watches for pass interference.Special teams: Watches for offside and encroachment; rules on penalties involving blockers and defenders on trick plays.Line judgeLining up on the sideline opposite the down judge and looking directly down the line of scrimmage, the line judge has similar duties without the chain crew direction. Below are the line judge’s assignments on run plays, pass plays and special-teams plays.Run plays: Watches for offside and encroachment; watches blockers and defenders on nearest side for penalties.Pass plays: Watches for offside and encroachment on nearest side of field; follows nearest receiver for seven yards downfield; moves into offensive backfield to determine if pass is forwards or backwards; makes sure passer is behind the line of scrimmage when he throws the ball.Special teams: Stays at line of scrimmage on punts to make sure only players on the ends of the line move downfield before the kick; rules on whether the kick crosses the line of scrimmage; watches kicking team for penalties.Field judgeLining up on the same sideline as the line judge but 20 yards behind the line of scrimmage in the defensive backfield, the field judge counts defensive players and watches wide receivers/defensive backs on the nearest side of the field. Below are the field judge’s assignments on run plays, pass plays and special-teams plays.Run plays: Watches widest receiver’s blocking and looks for illegal use of hands or holding; determines if/when a runner on nearest side of the field goes out of bounds.Pass plays: Watches widest receiver on nearest side of the field and makes sure he is able to run his route without interference; rules on whether a pass to nearest side of the field is incomplete; rules on whether a receiver is in or out of bounds when he makes a catch; watches for pass interference.Special teams: Rules on blocking during punts; lines up under goal posts to rule on whether field goals and extra points are good.Side judgeLining up on the same sideline as the down judge but 20 yards behind the line of scrimmage in the defensive backfield, the side judge backs up the clock operator, signals to the ref when time expires for each quarter and counts defensive players. Below are the side judge’s assignments on run plays, pass plays and special-teams plays.Run plays: Watches widest receiver’s blocking and looks for illegal use of hands or holding; determines if/when a runner on nearest side of the field goes out of bounds.Pass plays: Watches widest receiver on nearest side of the field and makes sure he is able to run his route without interference; rules on whether a pass to nearest side of the field is incomplete; rules on whether a receiver is in or out of bounds when he makes a catch; watches for pass interference.Special teams: Watches punt returner and any action around him; joins umpire in defensive backfield on field goal and PAT attempts; watches for penalties along the line of scrimmage.Back judgeUsually lining up on the tight end’s side, the back judge is positioned 25 yards behind the line of scrimmage in the defensive backfield. The back judge keeps track of the play clock and all TV breaks, counts defensive players and focuses on tight ends and all the players on the end of the lines. Below are the back judge’s assignments on run plays, pass plays and special-teams plays.
QPR striker Jay Bothroyd is heading towards a move to Sheffield Wednesday, according to The Sun.Bothroyd played for Cardiff under Owls boss Dave Jones, who is reported to be tracking him after deciding not to sign Marlon Harewood.Bothroyd can leave QPR.Jones is apparently willing to pay £1m for the England international, who has been told he can leave Loftus Road.Meanwhile, West Ham have failed with an attempt to sign Clint Dempsey from Fulham, the Daily Mail say.The Hammers are said to have made an approach for the American, who has been linked with several clubs this summer.Marseille want Gael Kakuta in exchange for Cesar Azpilicueta if they are to sell the Spanish right-back to Chelsea, according to the Daily Mirror.It is claimed Marseille have rejected a £5m bid for Azpilicueta and are holding out for more money but also fancy Kakuta either on loan or in a permanent player-plus-cash deal.It follows an interview with L’Equipe in which Kakuta, 21, appeared to suggest he wants to return to France and that Marseille are one of the clubs he would be interested in joining.The Mail say Chelsea are refusing to be held to ransom in their pursuit of long-term targets Edinson Cavani and Hulk.The Blues are reportedly threatening to withdraw from both chases, with Napoli striker Cavani believed to be haggling over wages and Porto keen to negotiate a higher price for Hulk.This page is regularly updated.See also:Wednesday may struggle to prise away QPR man – report Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
SANTA CLARA — Reuben Foster looked every bit a play-making, turnover-forcing machine immediately into his rookie training camp last year. Interceptions came daily, along with a fumble or two. His hands were magnets to the football.“The ball’s got a thing for me. I don’t got a thing for the ball,” Foster quipped back then with his fun-loving smile.Now, 14 games into his career, Foster has no interceptions, no fumble recoveries, no forced fumbles and a bum shoulder. That injury aside, he …
The Mapungubwe Jazz Festival on Sunday 23 March features Mafikizolo, Kurt Darren, Selaelo Selota, Mi Casa, Uhuru and many others. • Khathu Sadiki +27 82 932 6086 +27 15 284 4006 [email protected] • Jermina Kaka +27 82 560 7197 +27 15 284 4321 [email protected] writerA carnival, women’s boxing match, craft market, gospel extravaganza, cool jazz and Miss Mapungubwe beauty pageant – there’s lots to see at Limpopo’s week-long Mapungubwe Arts Festival.The festival, set to run from Monday 17 to Sunday 23 March in the Limpopo capital of Polokwane, is to be held as a celebration of South Africa’s 20 years of freedom.Download the programmeIt kicks off on Monday with a parade and carnival through the streets of Polokwane, from Olympic Towers to the SABC Park, accompanied by performances by cultural groups, a brass band, drum majorettes and local DJs and musicians. Later in the day boxer Bukiwe Nonina will defend her South African female lightweight title in a match at the Nirvana Community Hall.The Mapungubwe Craft Market will be open throughout the week, which will also see a number of theatre performances, arts and culture workshops, music and sporting activities.On Friday evening, DJ Complexion will host the Miss Mapungubwe beauty pageant at Polokwane’s flagship Peter Mokaba Stadium.The week-long event winds up with two music festivals, gospel and jazz, to be held at the Polokwane Cricket Club.The Mapungubwe Gospel Festival on Saturday 22 March will run from 11h00 until late, and features performances from Rebecca Malope, Sifiso Ncwane, Hlengiwe Mhlaba, Debra Fraser and more.Download the gospel festival programmeThe Mapungubwe Jazz Festival on Sunday 23 March also will also start at 11h00 and run late, and features Mafikizolo, Kurt Darren, Selaelo Selota, Mi Casa and many others.Download the jazz festival programmeFor more information and interview arrangements, contact Khathu Sadiki 082 932 6086 or 015 284 4006, email [email protected], or Jermina Kaka on 082 560 7197 015 284 4321, email [email protected]
(s 90′) MNU SOU 5 Stephens Possession Facebook Twitter 23 Hojbjerg United’s forward duo did nearly combine to open the scoring in the second minute but not because of any creativity in midfield. Instead the chance came from a blunder by Alex McCarthy, who missed the ball entirely as he attempted to clear. Rashford cleverly kept it in play with a backheel but Lukaku could not convert, McCarthy recovering to block his shot.If Lukaku’s attempted finish betrayed the lack of conviction of a striker who had not scored in his 12 previous matches, Armstrong soon produced a shot fuelled by the confidence of netting twice last week at Fulham. Southampton’s opening goal in the 13th minute was beautifully worked, too. Nathan Redmond went on a skilful dribble before feeding Obafemi at the edge of the area. The 18-year-old picked out Armstrong in space on the right hand side of the box and the Scot crowned the buildup with an immaculate finish, driving low into the far corner. Substitutes (s 72′) Manchester United 8 Davis (s 77′) Share on WhatsApp 6 Pogba Javier Hernández double helps West Ham end Newcastle’s winning run Share on LinkedIn 23 Shaw match reports 43 Valery Corners 22 Romero Pinterest Southampton 6 Hoedt 17 Armstrong Read more 1 McCarthy 27 Fellaini Southampton 2-2 Manchester United: Premier League – as it happened 10 Rashford Topics 17 Fred Share on Facebook United got worse before they got better. In the 19th minute Rashford conceded a free-kick just outside his own area. Soares, deployed in an unfamiliar left-back role, produced a finish more commonly associated with his compatriot Cristiano Ronaldo, curling over the wall and beyond the reach of David de Gea.Southampton were looking vibrant but their woes are too deeply ingrained to be forgotten. When United, inspired by Rashford, woke up, Southampton became dishevelled at the back. After shrugging off a tackle by Maya Yoshida, Rashford slipped in Lukaku, who showed no hesitation this time, blasting a shot into the net from 12 yards. Six minutes later Rashford created the equaliser, dashing into the box before pulling a low cross back to the near post, where Herrera finished with an artful flick. 3 Yoshida Reuse this content 61 Obafemi 21 Ander Herrera 9 Lukaku Manchester United battled back from two goals down to salvage a draw at lowly Southampton. Having climbed back into the game the visitors plateaued. They had reached their level and never looked like overcoming their hosts, who have still not won at home this season but produced a display to relieve the pressure on Mark Hughes. José Mourinho, whose team missed the chance to go seventh above Everton, can expect no respite.The paradox in the previews for this match was that both managers complained they were being singled out for criticism. But both also knew that only their teams could put forward really compelling evidence in their defence, and time to do so was running low. Hughes’s side responded on cue. Mourinho’s stammered before blurting an answer that does not convince. This was a United performance with scant cohesion or conviction. 18 Lemina 4 Jones 60 40 Substitutes Goal attempts 28 Gunn Man Utd 14 Romeu Cédric Soares celebrates with Nathan Redmond after doubling Southampton’s lead. Photograph: Matt Watson/Southampton FC via Getty Images Southampton 10 Austin Share via Email 12 13 Share on Messenger 16 Rojo Premier League 3 5 Fouls 20 Gabbiadini 8 Mata 11 Martial 4 Vestergaard That was as good as United got. There was no rage for victory, no yearning to assert their superiority. Fellaini went close with a header after a free-kick by Young in the 51st minute and then, nothing. Much of the play was scruffy, neither team finding fluency and both guilty of misplaced passes and misjudged tackles. It was low-grade fare.Rashford flickered for United, and Obafemi was an exception for Southampton, showing precocious composure and deft touches before being replaced by Gabbiadini after the hour. The youngster could have been awarded a penalty just before that but the referee deemed an ungainly tackle by McTominay to have been fair. Hughes, unsurprisingly, expressed a contrary view from the sideline. Dalot made his introduction in the 72nd minute in place of Luke Shaw, who had to limp off.Lukaku, despite ending his drought, generally lumbered to little effect up front, partly because of inadequate service. Neither team threatened a winner, although Redmond forced De Gea to bat a long-range shot over the bar in the 80th minute. 31 Matic 22 Redmond Lineups 2 Cedric 39 McTominay 14 Lingard 10 Southampton Off target 6 Man Utd 6 Southampton On target 5 Man Utd In an effort to stimulate improvement both managers had got radical with their lineups. Hughes went bold, altering formation and giving first Premier League starts to a pair of teenagers: the 19-year-old defender Yan Valery and 18-year-old striker Michael Obafemi. Scoring was a problem for Southampton even before Hughes’s arrival in March and, with neither Manolo Gabbiadini nor Charlie Austin finding the net in the Premier League this season, Hughes perhaps felt he had little to lose in turning to Obafemi in the absence of the injured Danny Ings.Mourinho, meanwhile, opted against giving a Premier League debut to a teenager, leaving Diogo Dalot on the bench and deploying Ashley Young as a right wing-back instead. But the real intrigue in his selection was elsewhere: with only one fully fit centre-back available he nonetheless set his team up with a three-man backline, with Scott McTominay and Nemanja Matic flanking Phil Jones. Marouane Fellaini was assigned patrol duties just in front of that trio, while Ander Herrera and Paul Pogba were intended as the central conduits to a front pair of Romelu Lukaku and Marcus Rashford.With Juan Mata, Anthony Martial and Jesse Lingard relegated to the bench, it looked as if Mourinho had sent out a team whose priority was to contain a side that have won only once at this venue in 2018. The fact that Mourinho was deprived of defenders and had a surplus of attackers at his disposal made his approach all the more perverse. 18 Young The Observer Read more Match stats 1 de Gea Share on Twitter 16 Ward-Prowse MNU60SOU40% (s 64′) Share on Pinterest (s 86′) 20 Dalot
TV icon Jason Alexander, along with dozens of stars from TV, sports, music and film, will bet big to support talented young cancer researchers and change the future of cancer at Tower Cancer Research Foundation’s (TCRF) Inaugural Cancer Free Generation Poker Tournament and Casino Night on Saturday, June 7, 2014 in Los Angeles.The event has attracted the support of numerous celebrities, including AJ Buckley (CSI NY), Alexis Bellino and Jim Bellino (Real Housewives of Orange County), Ashlyn Pearce (The Bold and the Beautiful), Carl Weathers (Rocky), Christine Bently (Ballers-HBO), Corey Maggette (Detroit Pistons), Erik Valdez (General Hospital), Gilles Marini (Switched at Birth/Dancing With The Stars/Sex and the City), Golnesa “GG” Gharachedaghi (Shahs of Sunset), Gretchen Rossi and Slade Smiley (Real Housewives of Orange County/Marriage Boot Camp), Katie Cleary (America’s Next Top Model, Ironman 2), Kiptyn Locke (The Bachelorette), Lil’ Mama (hip hop recording artist), Maryse Ouellet (WWE Diva), Michael Vartan (Alias, Bates Motel), Nicholas Gonzalez (Sleepy Hollow, Resurrection), Nyambi Nyambi (Mike and Molly), Quinton Aaron (The Blind Side), Ryan Cabrera (pop rock singer/musician), Shanna Moakler (VH1 Hollywood Exes), Tony Denison (Major Crimes), Vanessa Marcil (Las Vegas), and Torrie Wilson (WWE Diva/Playmate).Cancer Free Generation (CFG) is the young leadership division of Tower Cancer Research Foundation. CFG seeks to identify, among their peers in Southern California, visionary and innovative doctors, medical professionals and researchers and enable them to discover and implement new ideas and techniques to conquer cancer. Additionally, CFG’s efforts support young people and their families who have been impacted by cancer, so that they may approach life with renewed strength and optimism. With this dual approach, CFG’s goal is to help ensure that the next generation becomes the first cancer free generation.TCRF has been the Southern California cancer patient’s greatest ally since 1996. The foundation is known for its stellar reputation professionally vetting cancer research programs and maximizing the impact of donor-investors. TCRF provides grants for clinical trials, innovative cancer research, caring patient support and community education. In line with its mission to advance local cancer research on every level, TCRF supports pioneering and talented physician scientists with awards of annual grants to those doing cutting-edge bench-to-bedside lab research. TCRF’s patient support services include patient mentoring, cancer support groups, free groundbreaking workshops and support for caregivers. TCRF’s Cancer Information and Resource Telephone Help Line, staffed by professional social workers, is a free service to help cancer patients and their families cope with the complexities and challenges of a cancer diagnosis and cancer treatment.Poker & Casino Prizes include: PokerStars supporting a Cancer Free Generation by donating an Entrance into the PokerStars Caribbean Adventure Main Event in the Bahamas, valued at $10,000; 5-Night stay at the Trump International Waikiki, Hawaii; 2 Los Angeles Lakers Floor Seats.Raffle and Silent Auction Items Include: Red Hot Chili Peppers autographed guitars; Private tour and Night at the Magic Castle Hollywood; Santa Anita “A Day at the Races” Package; and much more.The event will take place at the Sofitel Hotel, Riviera 31, 8555 Beverly Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90048. Red carpet arrivals begin at 6:00 PM PST.Tickets may be purchased here or by calling 310.299.8477.Source:PR Newswire
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AccorHotels The NSW tourism industry is set to receive a significant boost following the announcement by AccorHotels and Johnson Property Group that a 5-star Pullman hotel will be built as part of a $388 million integrated resort development at Trinity Point, Lake Macquarie.Johnson Property Group has appointed AccorHotels to operate the resort under the group’s leading 5-star Pullman brand.Pullman Trinity Point Resort will be the first new build 5-star resort in the Lake Macquarie area for nearly 10 years, and will adjoin an apartment complex with a combination of 250 hotel rooms, short stay serviced apartments, and private residential apartments.The Resort will comprise of 65 hotel rooms as well as 150 one, two and three bedroom serviced apartments and feature a business centre, 300 person conference/wedding facilities, a swimming pool, day spa, gymnasium, restaurant and bar, executive lounge, tourist information office and ground level retail outlets. Some of the hotel rooms will feature premium views overlooking Lake Macquarie and a proposed 188-berth marina.AccorHotels Pacific Chief Operating Officer, Simon McGrath said the Pullman Trinity Point Resort and surrounding masterplanned precinct will be a significant economic contributor and boost for tourism in regional NSW.“We’re delighted to be opening a new Pullman Resort in partnership with Johnson Property Group which will enhance the regional NSW accommodation offering in the 5-star end of the market,” Mr McGrath said.“The resort will open up new opportunities for domestic and international travellers to venture outside of Sydney where the hotel market has been considerably constrained. The local economy will also benefit through local employment, supplier partnerships and added expenditure that will come with increased visitors to the region.“Pullman Trinity Point Resort will not only offer leisure and business guests a luxurious, waterfront accommodation experience but its location sits within the sweet spot between Sydney, Newcastle and the Hunter Valley.We’re confident that the resort will appeal to a number of market segments from weddings to business retreats given its close proximity to Sydney and other regional tourism hubs. Boat and yacht owners will also enjoy arriving to the resort by water access,” Mr McGrath concluded.Johnson Property Group CEO Keith Johnson said the company was pleased to partner with AccorHotels to deliver a luxury 5-star resort to attract new visitors to Lake Macquarie.“A major drawcard of the Pullman Trinity Point Resort will be the surrounding lifestyle amenities which we are developing within the precinct, including a 200-seat restaurant with additional outdoor dining, a 300-seat function centre, as well as extensive foreshore boardwalk and stunning seabaths overlooking Lake Macquarie,” Mr Johnson said.“Lake Macquarie currently attracts over 900,000 visitors every year and the new Pullman Trinity Point Resort and surrounding restaurant, function centre, lifestyle and marina amenities are set to significantly boost tourism in the region.”The construction of the hotel and apartment complex will see the creation of an estimated 3,500 jobs together with ongoing employment in the hospitality, tourism and marina elements of the project. Construction is expected to commence for stage one of the marina in early 2016.Trinity Point, spanning 23 hectares of prime waterfront land, is situated within the township of Morisset Park, 12 minutes off the M1 Pacific Motorway overlooking Barden’s Bay and the wider Lake Macquarie. For more information, visit trinitypoint.com.au.Pullman Trinity Point Resort will complement AccorHotels other properties in the Central Coast and Lakes area including Pullman Magenta Shores Resort and ibis Styles The Entrance. Source = AccorHotels