Oct 23, 2008 (CIDRAP News) – The federal Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has opened the door to voluntary anthrax vaccination for first responders, revising an 8-year-old recommendation against that step.The committee, meeting yesterday, said the risk of anthrax exposure for emergency responders is low but “may not be zero,” and therefore first-responder agencies may want to offer the vaccine on a voluntary basis, according to information supplied by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) today.The CDC routinely adopts the ACIP’s recommendations.Anthrax vaccination—which currently involves six doses over 18 months, followed by annual boosters—is required for US military personnel serving in the Middle East and other high-risk areas. Nearly 2 million service members have been vaccinated under the program, according to ACIP reports.However, a number of military members have complained of negative side effects from the shot, and a lawsuit by several of them interrupted mandatory vaccinations for about 2 years starting in October 2004. Another lawsuit against the program is still in the courts.Allowing the optionThe new recommendation adopted by the ACIP does not actively encourage anthrax shots for first responders. It states:”Emergency and other responders, including police departments, fire departments, hazardous material units, government responders, the National Guard and others, are not recommended for routine pre-event anthrax vaccination. However, the committee recognized that while the risk of exposure for first responders to anthrax is low it may not be zero. Therefore, first responder units may choose to offer their workers pre-event vaccination on a voluntary basis. The vaccination program should be carried out under the direction of a comprehensive occupational health and safety program.”In 2000 the ACIP recommended against “pre-event” anthrax shots for first responders, and that stance was reaffirmed when the committee revisited the issue after the anthrax attacks of late 2001, according to an online summary of the June 2008 ACIP meeting. The reasons for reconsidering that recommendation included a growing supply of the vaccine and new data suggesting a change in the vaccine’s safety profile, plus interest from some first-responder groups, according to comments made at that meeting.Interest from emergency respondersA change in the recommendation for first responders was proposed at the June meeting by an ACIP subcommittee called the Anthrax Vaccine Workgroup. The panel’s work was described by Jennifer G. Wright, DVM, MPH.”Post-event vaccination in combination with antibiotics is an effective intervention following exposure to B[acillus] anthracis spores, but the workgroup felt that pre-event vaccination could offer additional protection beyond that afforded by antibiotics and post[exposure] vaccination by providing early priming of the immune system,” the meeting summary states. “Some respondent organizations have stated that their members would be more willing to respond to a bioterrorism event if they were vaccinated prior to the occurrence of the event.”Dr. Richard Besser, director of the CDC’s Coordinating Office for Terrorism Preparedness and Emergency Response, commented at the June meeting that a number of emergency response agencies had indicated interest in preemptive anthrax immunization for their workers, but the existing negative recommendation was seen as an impediment.Also at that meeting, the CDC’s Nancy Messonier said that the workgroup’s intent in proposing a change was “to open the door, knowing that the vaccine is commercially available and that first responder groups are at liberty to call the manufacture to obtain the vaccine themselves,” the meeting summary states.The FDA-licensed vaccine, called anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA) (Biothrax), is made by Emergent BioSolutions Inc. Current annual production capacity is 8 million to 9 million doses, up from about 2 million in 2002, the June meeting report says. A new manufacturing facility that is being tested will eventually boost production to as many as 30 million to 35 million doses, it says.”The workgroup felt that at the current time, vaccine supply was sufficient to support vaccination for a large group of individuals,” the report states. It says the nation may have as many as 3 million first responders, depending on how the term is defined.The work group concluded that the risk of anthrax exposure for first responders through a bioterrorism event is “undefinable,” the summary states. However, the group concluded that the available data suggest that the vaccine is safe and effective.Fewer adverse eventsThrough June 2008, 4,705 reports of adverse events associated with anthrax vaccination of military personnel were filed with the government’s Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, the report says. That represents a rate of 61.1 reports per 100,000 doses, as compared with 117 reports per 100,000 doses of smallpox vaccine. About 10% of the reports described “serious” adverse events.The report also said that in February the ACIP looked at data showing a decrease in local adverse events when the vaccine was given intramuscularly rather than by the standard subcutaneous route. That was an apparent reference to interim findings in a CDC study, which were reported in the Oct 1 Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA; see link to news story below).The JAMA report said people who were vaccinated intramuscularly had fewer injection-site reactions after four doses than those who received subcutaneous shots. It also said those who received three intramuscular shots in the first 6 months had about the same immune response as those who received the standard four subcutaneous shots, suggesting that dose reduction may be possible.Discussion at the June ACIP meeting pointed out the challenges that would be posed by any effort to vaccinate large numbers of first responders, given the number and timing of doses involved. These include determining who would administer the vaccine, tracking recipients to keep them on schedule, providing liability coverage, monitoring adverse events, and caring for those who experience adverse events.Postexposure protectionAt yesterday’s meeting, the CDC reported, the ACIP also made a recommendation on postexposure protection against anthrax: 60 days of antimicrobial treatment in combination with three doses of vaccine. Vaccine should be offered within 10 days of exposure.”Anthrax vaccine is not licensed for children and has not been studied in children,” the CDC update said. “However, postexposure anthrax vaccination in children potentially exposed to anthrax may be considered on an event-by-event basis in conjunction with 60 days of antibiotics.”The recommendation on postexposure prophylaxis includes pregnant women. “Pregnancy is neither a precaution nor a contraindication. Pregnant women should receive vaccine and antibiotics if they are exposed to inhalation anthrax,” the CDC said.See also: Minutes of June 2008 ACIP meeting, including discussion of anthrax vaccinehttp://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/recs/acip/downloads/min-archive/min-jun08.pdfOct 6 CIDRAP News story “Trial offers hope for shortening anthrax-shot series”Oct 2 CIDRAP News story “To blunt anthrax attack, mail carriers to get antibiotics”
Partner agencies that have fundedvarious research endeavors of the university and faculty researchers who haveshown great accomplishments in basic and applied research, technology transferand promotion were also recognized during the celebration which started on Dec.9 and ended on Dec. 11.(With a reportPIA/PN) CAPSU president Dr. Editha Alfon saidthe technofest was successful and will be carried out through the RDE unit inthe succeeding years. The unit was spearheaded by Dr. Lucy Beluso. It also aimed at highlighting thedevelopments and achievements of the institution in research, productdevelopment and utility model. The technofest included an exhibit,showcasing the current innovative knowledge, technology and products developedby the university. During his speech on the opening day,Rep. Fredenil Castro of the 2nd District of Capiz, commended the school for theinitiative and the food-centered researches, challenging the university “tocome up with something better, special, more sophisticated, and spectacular.” The technofest was also a venue forthe science community and enthusiasts, particularly the technology developersand investors, including the science and technology service providers andclients, to interact, exchange ideas and pursue potential opportunities intechnology commercialization and linkages. TRANSLATED TO COMMUNITIES. CAPSU vice – president for Research, Development and Extension Dr. Lucy Beluso (on mic) says that the research products in terms of new technologies and basic researches are translated to the communities in view of the schools’ extension services during an interaction with local tri-media practitioners, Dec. 9, at CAPSU Dayao satellite college in Roxas City. Photo by PIA Capiz/A. Lumaque ROXAS City – The Research, Developmentand Extension (RDE) unit of the Capiz State University (CAPSU) conducted athree-day celebration on its breakthroughs in research and technology here.
RelatedPosts Ighalo: My best moment as ‘Red Devil’ EPL: Crystal Palace stun sloppy Man U EPL: Red Devils attack Palace Norwich City vs. Man UVenue: Carrow RoadKick off: 5:30PMNorwich City welcome Manchester United to Carrow Road in the Premier League this afternoon knowing that they can cause an upset against the Red Devils.The Canaries will head into the game feeling that they have nothing to lose against an Ole Gunnar Solskjaer side that is seriously struggling to create chances.Daniel Farke’s side only need to look at how they overcame Manchester City for when it comes preparing themselves for this meeting with the Red Devils.That 3-2 win over Pep Guardiola’s side was essentially hallmarked by the dual principles of staying incredibly tight as a defensive unit and, when the time was right, springing the trap on their opponents whenever the ball was lost high up the pitch.Against a team that is likely to dominate the ball, Norwich will know that patient defending ultimately leads to gaps developing in behind – a blueprint laid down perfectly by Newcastle United earlier this month.While United have spent this week preparing for a trip to Serbia in the Europa League, Norwich have been able to enjoy a full week on the training ground to fine tune their counter-attacking game plan.However, despite their heroics against the Premier League champions, Norwich have largely failed to demonstrate a capacity to snatch results against teams around them, with the East Anglia side currently in 19th position after managing just two wins since August.A 5-1 defeat to Aston Villa in their last home game, along with defeats at Burnley and Crystal Palace, illustrates how Farke’s ambitious style, which revolves strongly around quickly playing out from the back, can often leave Norwich in perilous defensive positions at various points during games.For a team battling relegation, adopting such an expansive style can be risky and lead to doubts among figures in the dressing room – something which may well become the case as the season goes on.However, the prospect of facing United, a team that struggles when they have to dictate proceedings, gives Norwich a superb chance to rekindle the spirit that underpinned their performance against the Premier League champions last month.United finally won an away game at the 12th time of asking against Partizan on Thursday night, with Anthony Martial marking a return to action by scoring from the spot.Incredibly, that was the first away win since Solskjaer was appointed permanent manager in March and just the club’s fourth win inside 90 minutes since April.These facts serve to contextualise what was, despite the positive result, another performance devoid of perceptible strategy or conviction in Belgrade, with United not managing one shot on target from open play.While United’s defence has improved in the wake of Aaron Wan-Bissaka and Harry Maguire joining the club – they have five clean sheets this season – their potency going forward is virtually non-existent.Specifically, the Red Devils look deeply lost whenever presented with an opponent that decides to park men behind the ball and minimise space – a move employed by virtually every opponent and one that strips Solskjaer’s players of their natural predilection for hitting teams at pace.In their last 19 games in all competitions, United have managed to score more than one goal in a game on just one occasion – a 4-0 win over Chelsea on the opening day of the season, which now seems like a truly random anomaly.This problem is something that Solskjaer must address if he is to encounter long-term success at Old Trafford, and especially if United are to claim three points this afternoon against a side which will have no problems with keeping tight and waiting for their moment to break.Perhaps the Norwegian’s recent decision to make a switch to three at the back, with Martial and Marcus Rashford attacking down the middle, could stimulate a change of attacking fortunes against Norwich today. Norwich City possible XI: Krul, Aarons, Amadou, Srbeny, Lewis, Tettey, Leitner, McLean, Buendia, Cantwell, Pukki.Man U possible XI: De Gea, Wan-Bissaka, Rojo, Maguire, Lindelof, Young, McTominay, Fred, Pereira, Martial, Rashford.Tags: Manchester UnitedOle Gunnar Solskjaer