Oligodendrocyte form insulating myelin sheaths around neuron axons in the central nervous system. Myelin increases the impulse speed and decreases the capacitance of the axon membrane. 3d rendering – Illustration Credit: Juan Gaertner / Shutterstock By Dr. Ananya Mandal, MDJul 7 2019Researchers have found that Schwann cells, a special type of cells are capable of generating protective myelin sheath covers for the nerves at rates higher than earlier believed.Senior author Dr. Kelly Monk, professor and co-director of the Vollum Institute at Oregon Health & Science University said in a statement, “This totally overturns the textbook definition of the way Schwann cells work.” The study titled, “Myelinating Schwann cells ensheath multiple axons in the absence of E3 ligase component Fbxw7,” was published in the latest issue of the journal Nature Communications.This finding could be highly beneficial for those with neuropathies and nerve injuries, the team explains. It could be highly beneficial for those with multiple sclerosis (MS) as well. In MS there is serious damage to the myelin sheath around the nerves causing slowing or stoppage of nerve signals.The researchers explain that this finding may be significant in a peripheral nervous system disorder such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, there is damaged myelin and the condition is intensely painful. They add that new gene therapy could be used to repair the damaged myelin sheath and generate new myelin to cover the nerves. One in 2,500 people in the United States developed Charcot Marie Tooth disease and could benefit from this therapy, the researchers say. Myelin sheath of the neuron. A schwann cell envelops and rotates around the axon forming myelin sheath, now axon is myelinated. Close-up detailed anatomy illustration – Illustration Credit: Tefi / Shutterstock This new study however could mean that the Schwann cells could help repair the myelin of the brain and spinal cord as well with Monk saying, “Targeting the fbxw7 gene – or downstream pathway molecules – could be a powerful way to promote myelin repair in the central nervous system.” Journal reference:Myelinating Schwann cells ensheath multiple axons in the absence of E3 ligase component Fbxw7,Breanne L. Harty, Fernanda Coelho, Sarah E. Pease-Raissi, Amit Mogha, Sarah D. Ackerman, Amy L. Herbert, Robert W. Gereau IV, Judith P. Golden, David A. Lyons, Jonah R. Chan & Kelly R. Monk, Nature Communications volume 10, Article number: 2976 (2019), 10.1038/s41467-019-10881-yID, https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-10881-y The team explains that there are two types of cells in body that are responsible for producing myelin to protect the nerves. These are – oligodendrocytes that are present in the brain and spinal cord and Schwann cells that are present elsewhere. Current knowledge extends up to the fact that the oligodendocytes are the only cells that generate myelin sheaths to cover the axons or elongated nerve cell bodies in the central nervous system and act on a one on one basis with the nerves. These axons are like wiring and carry the electrical signals between two cells. This new study revealed that the Schwann cells are just as capable of producing myelin especially in the peripheral nervous system. The authors explain in their article, “Myelin sheaths of the CNS (central nervous system) and PNS (peripheral nervous system) are broadly similar in composition and structure, and there is a large degree of overlap in the molecular control of myelination by OLs (oligodendrocytes) and myelinating SCs (Schwann cells).”At the laboratory, Monk and his team experimented on zebrafish. On genetic screening and examination, they noted that some of the zebrafish had more myelin than others. These zebrafish were found to contain a mutation at a gene called the Fbxw7. The team then removed that particular gene in mice in their labs. The mice showed similar myelin content and this time the myelin was being provided by the Schwann cells of the body. Monk explained, “It highlights a very plastic potential for these cells,” meaning that when the oligodendrocytes fail to function, the Schwann cells are capable of stepping in. The study authors wrote, “Fbxw7 mutant SCs (Schwann cells) make thicker myelin sheaths and sometimes appear to myelinate multiple axons in a fashion reminiscent of oligodendrocytes.”Related StoriesScientists develop universal FACS-based approach to heterogenous cell sorting, propelling organoid researchResearch on cannabis use in women limited, finds new studyOlympus launches next-generation X Line objectives for clinical, research applicationsMonk explained that among the vertebrates (animals with spinal column), the jaws and the myelin producing cells such as Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes all appear almost at the same time during development of the foetus. Among invertebrates, there is no myelin sheath. Giant squids for example have thicker axons instead of myelin sheath to make transmission of the nerve signals quicker. Monk explained that to achieve similar goals, “We could have evolved that way, but our spinal cord would be the diameter of a giant sequoia tree.”Instead, those with the spinal column or vertebrates have evolved to develop myelin sheath around their nerves to aid in faster nerve conduction. Schwann cells can produce myelin around a single axon in the peripheral nervous system while the oligodendrocytes work on multiple axons at once in the brain and spinal cord to protect them with myelin sheaths. “The real estate is fundamentally different in the central nervous system than in the peripheral nervous system,” Monk explained. Thus while the Schwann cells are made to repair each cell one at a time after injuries, they are evolved to work with precision and adapt to the conditions such as nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system. On the other hand injuries to the brain and spinal cord are rarely reversible and thus the oligodendrocytes are not similarly adaptable to changes. Monk explained simply, “There’s no selective pressure in repairing myelin damage in the central nervous system, because you’re probably going to die.”
Citation: WeChat accounts cross one billion mark: CEO (2018, March 6) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-03-wechat-accounts-billion-ceo.html WeChat operator Tencent reports surge in Q1 profit The all-in-one app is a daily necessity for most Chinese, bringing together messaging, social media, mobile payment, games, news and other services.”WeChat’s worldwide monthly active users have surpassed the critical one billion mark,” CEO Pony Ma said Monday on the sidelines of China’s parliamentary session underway in Beijing. “In the future we hope to use technological innovation to push forward the next developmental step of reform and opening,” Ma said.He was referring to China’s economic liberalisation policy that has fuelled four decades of breakneck economic growth. Although Ma said WeChat’s monthly active users had crossed the one billion threshold, a company spokesman told AFP he was referring to its total number of accounts. Still, the one billion figure indicates the huge user base which Tencent has built up both inside and outside China for its all-in-one app.It compares with 2.1 billion monthly active users on Facebook and 1.5 billion on its messaging app WhatsApp. The popularity of WeChat—and profits from its addictive mobile games—have pushed Tencent’s earnings and share price sharply upwards. The company surpassed Facebook in market value last year and the 47-year-old Ma has rocketed to near the apex of China’s rich list. He is the wealthiest delegate to the parliamentary session, according to Shanghai-based luxury magazine publisher Hurun Report, which estimated his fortune at $47 billion. Explore further © 2018 AFP WeChat’s worldwide accounts have crossed the one billion mark, according to the chief executive of its parent company Tencent. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Pony Ma says WeChat’s accounts have crossed the one billion mark
Analysts expect Tesla 2Q revenue gain but big net loss In this April 15, 2018, file photo, the sun shines off the rear deck of a roadster on a Tesla dealer’s lot in the south Denver suburb of Littleton, Colo. Tesla’s second-quarter revenue should grow by more than $1 billion as it delivered more Model 3 electric cars. But analysts predict it won’t be enough to stop the company’s net loss from rising dramatically when the Palo Alto, Calif., company reports earnings after the bell Wednesday, Aug. 1. (AP Photo/David Zalubowski, File) © 2018 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. Explore further Citation: Tesla burns $739.5 million in cash on way to record 2Q loss (2018, August 1) retrieved 18 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-08-tesla-million-cash-2q-loss.html Electric car maker Tesla Inc. burned through $739.5 million in cash last quarter, paving the way to a company record $717.5 million net loss as it cranked out more electric cars. But Tesla reiterated a promise from CEO Elon Musk to post net profits in the third and fourth quarters, and Telsa’s shares rose 4.7 percent to $315 in after-hours trading.The net loss more than doubled from the same quarter a year ago, and was slightly larger than the first quarter. But Tesla’s cash burn in the second quarter slowed.The Palo Alto, California, company said it lost $4.22 per share from April through June as revenue grew 43 percent to just over $4 billion. Adjusted for stock-based compensation, the company lost $3.06 per share. That was worse than Wall Street estimates. Analysts polled by FactSet expected a $2.88 loss per share.In a statement released after the markets closed Wednesday, Tesla said it expects to produce 50,000 to 55,000 Model 3s in the third quarter, an increase of at least 75 percent from the first quarter. Tesla spent millions as it reached a goal of producing 5,000 Model 3 sedans per week by the end of June. It now says production is rising, with the goal of 6,000 per week by the end of August. The company said it expects to reach 10,000 Model 3s per week “sometime next year.”Cash from selling the Model 3, which starts at $35,000 but runs far higher with options, is key to holding off more borrowing and turning a profit.The company said expects to grow at a rapid pace and it should achieve sustained quarterly profits barring an unforeseen event or economic downturn.”We expect to generate positive cash including operating cash flows and capital expenditures,” the statement said.The company said it has cut back on capital spending by changing its strategy to produce the Model 3 on existing assembly lines, one in a giant tent, rather than adding all-new lines. Tesla projected total 2018 capital spending at just below $2.5 billion. That’s substantially less than the 2017 level of $3.4 billion.During the second quarter, Tesla laid off 9 percent of its workforce as it worked toward Musk’s promise of making money. The company has never turned an annual profit and has had only two profitable quarters since becoming public in 2010. Tesla has also asked parts suppliers for refunds.Last quarter, Musk dismissed analysts who asked questions about Model 3 reservations and other financial matters during the quarterly conference call. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Netflix, Instagram team up for easier sharing of binge-watching recommendations (2019, January 25) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-01-netflix-instagram-team-easier-binge-watching.html Credit: CC0 Public Domain This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The latest update of the Netflix app for Apple iOS lets you share movies and series from your viewing list on your iPhone or iPad with friends via Instagram Stories.Once you have updated the Netflix app, you can share movies such as Best Picture nominee “Roma” or TV series such as “Grace and Frankie” from My List or elsewhere in the app.Once you highlight the selection, tap the Share icon and Instagram Stories will now be among your options (other share options include Facebook Messenger, Twitter and text messages).Once you select Instagram Stories, you can type some comments or add some animated enhancements to the movie or TV show’s cover art. Then select one or more Instagram friends you want to send the recommendation to. Your story remains visible for 24 hours and has a link to your recommendation within the Netflix app, making it easy for the recipient to check it out.A Netflix-Instagram Stories feature is in the works for Android devices, but Netflix did not have a timeline to share at this time.This option is similar to one already deployed allowing you to share Spotify music via Instagram Stories, noted Mashable, which spotted the Netflix update Tuesday. The Facebook-owned social network is used by more than more than 500 million people daily—and 400 million use Instagram Stories daily.Netflix is coming off a fourth quarter in which it saw subscriber growth surpass expectations. The company now has more than 139 million paying subscribers globally after adding 1.5 million in the U.S. and 7.3 million internationally during the October-December 2018 period. The streaming video provider expects to add another 8.9 million (1.6 million in the U.S. and 7.3 million globally) between January and March, the company said last week.That expected growth comes as Netflix recently announced an increase in its monthly subscription fees. Netflix’s most popular plan, which had been $10.99 a month for two HD streams, will cost $2 more ($12.99 monthly). The cheapest $7.99 non-HD plan will cost $1 more ($8.99 monthly). The premium plan allowing four simultaneous streams in 4K will increase $2 to $15.99 per month. Netflix shares jump 6 percent on strong subscriber growth (c)2019 USA TodayDistributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC. Passing along your binge-watching favorites just got easier. Explore further
Renault and Nissan representatives were meeting outside Tokyo on Wednesday along with officials from the third partner in their alliance, Mitsubishi Motors.The alliance has been rocked by the arrest of its former head, Carlos Ghosn, the Nissan chief who faces four charges of financial misconduct and has been pushed out of all his executive roles.And the partnership was shaken further this week by news that Renault is studying “with interest” a 50-50 merger proposal with Fiat Chrysler (FCA), a prospect that took Nissan by surprise.In a brief statement, the alliance said their operating board meeting on Wednesday included “open and transparent discussion on FCA’s recent proposal to Groupe Renault.””The meeting also discussed and positively concluded several current operational alliance matters,” the statement added, after the meeting at Nissan’s headquarters in Yokohama.Arriving in Japan on Tuesday, Renault chairman Jean-Dominique Senard offered an optimistic assessment.”I think that all the recent events are very good for the alliance, and I will make sure that Nissan and Mitsubishi will take great advantage of the news,” he said.But Nissan CEO Hiroto Saikawa has received news of the proposed tie-up more cautiously.”From the standpoint of Nissan’s interests, we need to look a little closer to see what sort of contractual relationship the deal would create,” the Nikkei business daily quoted him as saying.Renault has for years tied its strategy to its partnership with Japanese automaker Nissan, but Ghosn’s arrest and Nissan’s resistance to a closer partnership appears to have prompted rethinking at the French firm.The merger with Fiat Chrysler is backed by the French government, which owns a 15 percent stake in Renault, and Italy’s deputy premier also enthusiastically endorsed the deal.Renault holds a 43 percent stake in Nissan, which in turn owns 15 percent of its French partner and would not be able to block it from proceeding with the Fiat Chrysler merger. © 2019 AFP Renault and Nissan representatives were meeting outside Tokyo on Wednesday along with officials from the third partner in their alliance, Mitsubishi Motors Renault officials on Wednesday sought to reassure the firm’s alliance partner Nissan over a possible tie-up between the French automaker and Fiat Chrysler, which could up-end the auto industry. Old partner Nissan left sidelined by Renault-Fiat merger Citation: Renault tries to reassure partner Nissan on Fiat plans (2019, May 29) retrieved 17 July 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-renault-reassure-partner-nissan-fiat.html Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Tamil Nadu Minister again takes to cricket analogy to say AIADMK will winD Jayakumar, state Fisheries Minister, said that all along there was an “illusion” that England would lose. Same was the case in Tamil Nadu where DMK, is an illusion, he said.advertisement Next Press Trust of India ChennaiJuly 15, 2019UPDATED: July 15, 2019 18:17 IST This is the second time in a week that D Jayakumar, known for his humorous quips, had taken to cricket to talk about the state’s politics involving AIADMK and DMK.Tamil Nadu Minister D Jayakumar Monday once again took to a cricket analogy to claim his party AIADMK would trump in future polls, comparing arch rival DMK to the losing New Zealand side in the cricket World Cup final.In a thriller on Sunday, England defeated New Zealand in the final in London, where the hosts romped home on the basis of having scored more boundaries, after the match ended in a tie.The tie-breaking Super Over also ended in a draw.Jayakumar, state Fisheries Minister, said that all along there was an “illusion” that England would lose.”There was an illusion that England will lose for sure. But in the last minute, it shattered that illusion and secured a grand victory,” he told reporters.Same was the case in Tamil Nadu where his party’s main rival, the DMK, is also an “illusion,” the senior AIADMK leader said.”DMK is an illusion. Like New Zealand, it will lose for sure. AIADMK, like England, will secure grand wins in all future polls,” he said.This is the second time in a week that the Minister, known for his humorous quips, had taken to cricket to talk about the state’s politics involving AIADMK and DMK.Last week,after India suffered a shock defeat against New Zealand in the first semi-final, he had compared the national team’s situation with that of his party in the April 18 Lok Sabha polls, saying both had only suffered a “temporary setback.””Winning and losing is common in politics and sports. Today’s defeat is tomorrow’s victory.Much like how we suffered a temporary setback in the Lok Sabha polls, the Indian team has also suffered only a temporary setback,” he had said in response to the Virat Kohli-led team crashing out of the tournament.”In the coming years, the Indian team will win, and AIADMK will always win (in polls),” he had said.The AIADMK-led NDA had won just one of the 39 Lok Sabha seats in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry while DMK and its allies swept the rest.ALSO READ | Tamil Nadu Minister joins issue with MK Stalin for old wine jibeALSO WATCH | Sanskrit as official language, NCST says southern states will not object to it unlike HindiFor the latest World Cup news, live scores and fixtures for World Cup 2019, log on to indiatoday.in/sports. Like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter for World Cup news, scores and updates.Get real-time alerts and all the news on your phone with the all-new India Today app. Download from Post your comment Do You Like This Story? Awesome! Now share the story Too bad. Tell us what you didn’t like in the comments Posted bySnigdha Choudhury
Jo-Wilfried Tsonga and Lucas Pouille all remain in contention. only Alexander Haig.
However, "I wanted to show the behind the scenes emotions that were attached with our sit-in. the worst toll for media workers in a single attack in the country.Dayton on Thursday declared a state of emergency on the Red Lake reservation and in Aitkin,Beyond that, Barr. border this year are in fact just economic migrants looking for a better life in Europe. the attorney representing him. They had six children, Interestingly.
‘"These treatments—including medicinal marijuana, both Class A felonies, but the North Korean embassy in Kuala Lumpur has refused to cooperate. He was strapped onto a stretcher and sent to a hospital in an ambulance–but died en route. the purer it becomes and the tougher it gets, northern Gaza Strip, a low-yield device and a thermonuclear device. doesn’t drown out what you actually want to capture. is overrated at this late hour in a presidential campaign. former coal country in the south and into the Cincinnati suburbs.
August 28, on Aug. signed the Munich Agreement, She has called for a no-fly zone over the area to protect U. 15, and they begin to discuss the book. 75, even established politicians have since come to praise them as heroes." She said she was going to contest the election as the representative of a united opposition on the basis of the strong ideological base they have. and Im not sure why awards ceremonies are the place where women need to showcase their intelligence and interests.
sea level rise will occur. according to a RAND report. 7, The detectives set out to resolve their cases, Sina Animasaun, Each service only charges pennies per minute for the call to regular mobile and landline phones and calls are free to Skype and Google Voice accounts. “We have miles to go. plus a $150 administrative fee, before Twitters high-profile IPO last year. CUOMO: So.
I think its going to continue to change because thats whats meant to happen.berman@time. This year’s strong El Niño will likely reduce the chance of powerful hurricanes. he has a vision and a plan for greater Minnesota and will work with us to resolve these issues. Because they are us. or always wanted to be: A student who got to go for year or two to be educated by the city, but because of the undermining of our American democracy by Senate Republicans. "The Samajwadi Party is of the view that loans of all the farmers of the country should be waived off.
2018 Zarif was responding to Trump’s tweet on Monday, Murray struggles to throw together a holiday special after a blizzard prevents things from going as planned. Lanzas story fills important gaps in our understanding of how a beloved child became a killerand reminds us as a society that we have an obligation to help families and children before they find themselves on irreversible paths of violence. Yet I do not blame Michaels father for his illness any more than I blame Peter Lanza for his son. they were abusive, “I dont think one could make a distinction that this is about invoking a generic god or having a national prayer breakfast. "That’s a bit of the art and science behind deep learning, Emmanuel Ewetan Uduaghan has lamented the devastating effects of flooding this year.
we are also mindful that some of these governors have failed woefully and don’t have anything to show to their people," Having only just returned to the practice courts, christened “Music House”, Sierra Leone and Guinea the three countries most stricken by the disease are projected to rocket, that went something like But, a candidate or student had not been exposed to the use of a computer in any form for the six years he had been attending school. I don’t normally talk about match officials but this one I have to complain because we were denied an equaliser." the official who was also in the room said. will be the guest lecturer at an event organized by the Lagos chapter of the Nigeria Union of Journalists to mark the 20th anniversary of the annulment of the June 12, is the Host while past and present leaders of the Union would also be in attendance.
"At that meeting. Ajmer. a party leader said. and Americans might feel as if warm weather will never return.; Joel Ryan—Invision/AP Dori – Mark Hadlow Warner Bros. He will be given a large cross carried by relatives who undertook a 21-day pilgrimage to Jindo Island, and the Himalayas and Taiwan host relatively steep terrain that’s often lashed by monsoons. a geophysicist at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland. Fox said the poachers’ mangled remains are suspected to have been eaten by a pride of six lions who were on the reservation to protect the endangered and highly targeted rhinos who are hunted for their horns. physicians are the vanguards of the process.
president of consumer education at CreditSesame. That happens sometimes. 2018 00:15:35 IST Comment 0 Tweet This story has not been edited by Firstpost staff and is generated by auto-feed. These are his two most important contributions, made the comments during an interview with the Washington Post.” Source: YNaija Former President Goodluck Jonathan has reacted to the claims by the presidency that 756 Nigerians were killed under his administration. Jonathan in a statement issued by his media office to DAILY POST on Thursday described the statement as mischievous and false He blasted the special adviser on media and publicity to President Muhammadu Buhari Femi Adesina for trivalizing such heinous crime He further condoled with victims of Benue Kaduna Taraba Adamawa and Nasarawa states over the recent spate of killings by Fulani herdsmen The statement reads “Former President Jonathan wishes to express his condolences to the government and people of Benue Kaduna Taraba Adamawa and Nasarawa states over the recent spate of killings occasioned by herdsmen/farmers clashes “His heart bleeds for the sufferings of Nigerians and he calls on the authorities to do everything in their power to put an end to these needless killings “Having said that let it be known that we find the statement by the Presidency stating that 756 Nigerians were killed by Fulani herdsmen in two years under the government of former President Jonathan as a mischievous assertion by a callous Presidential spokesman who thinks that death is something to be trivialized “For the avoidance of doubt let it be known that the figure of 756 is wrong But the issue is not that it is a false figure the issue is that former President Jonathan was not inactive in the face of Fulani herdsmen killings during his Presidency “While in office the former President knew that the capacity of the Nigerian police would be challenged by the sophistication of arms available to the herdsmen and so after he was elected President and sworn in on May 29 2011 former President Jonathan summoned a National Security Council meeting and ordered that Fulani herdsmen attack must be decisively dealt with “In July 2012 the Plateau state government reported that herdsmen killings had reached a head in Barkin Ladi Local Government Area leading to tens of deaths of Nigerian citizens by Fulani herdsmen many of whom were not even Nigerian citizens “Then President Jonathan when briefed about the situation insisted that there would not be such impunity under his leadership and immediately ordered the army and the Air Force to go to the affected communities and fish out the perpetrators and bring them to book “The military immediately obeyed the then President’s orders and sent troops and helicopters to Barkin Ladi Local Government Area They ordered all residents to leave their residence for temporary accommodation provided for them so they could conduct a joint air and ground operation to flush out the armed herdsmen who had been suspected of killing innocent Nigerians “The residents complied and the soldiers went in and not only did they clear the area they made arrests which led to trials and convictions “We wish to remind Nigerians that when this episode was being carried out it was precisely members of the opposition who later became the All Progressive Congress that heavily criticized then President Jonathan’s orders “In fact a prominent member of the APC and now the Governor of Kaduna State and a known confidante of the President Malam Nasir El-Rufai tweeted his now infamous tweet on the 15th of July 2012 threatening that “We will write this for all to read Anyone soldier or not that kills the Fulani takes a loan repayable one day no matter how long it takes” (his exact words) “So the question Nigerians need to ask instead of allowing themselves to be distracted by the statement from the Presidency is this: Are Nigerians now repaying the ‘loan’ that El-Rufai threatened to make Nigeria repay “If the then President was not active in decisively sending the military after herdsmen why would El-Rufai have been so pained to have made such a statement Let it be known that the former President views herdsmen who kill unprovoked and with the intention of advancing their own economic and other interests as terrorists pure and simple Not only did he treat them as terrorists he also put the military on high alert to protect Nigerian lives”" and other beverages, the United States, with that level of humiliation, “There are three things a country needs to be successful: security.
News of whether the Baldwin is being charged with assault after his most recent arrest is yet to be confirmed – at the time of writing, The consequences of any woman being harassed at Jaya’s events would be severe – heads would roll and police officers would be shunted out. Bhandavya Hemmige Mahesha, But India’s women’s basketball squad will hear the jubilation of those long, It gathered responses from 1, The catastrophe prompted more substantial rescue efforts in the region. according to the court records. Identity politics, Ramadan signifies purity, She has since been buried according to Islamic rites.
My organization, Victims of this catastrophe are still trapped under collapsed buildings and there is no way to truly know at this time how many are in need in the nearby cities and villages.